The Powerbike Project

We develop methods for data acquisition, analysis, modeling, optimization and visualization of performance parameters in endurance sports with emphasis on competitive cycling. In comparison with other endurance sports road cycling offers some crucial advantages for research:

  • Lab and field studies possible
  • Sensors integrate unobtrusively
  • Mechanical model of cycling available
  • Performance measurement (power) readily available

Computer Science

Alexander Artiga Gonzalez

Scientific staff

Contact

Phone: +49 7531  88-3020

Room: Z 712

Website

Office Hours

By appointment by email.

Personal data

Research:

Powerbike Project

Current lectures:

Programmierkurs 1 (WS 2017/2018)

Prof. Dr. Dietmar Saupe

Professor

Contact

Room: Z 709

Website

Office Hours

By appointment by email.

Personal data

Fachbereichssprecher.

Stefan Wolf

Scientific staff

Contact

Phone: +49 7531  88-2035

Room: Z 712

Website

Fachgruppe Sportwissenschaft

Raphael Bertschinger

Scientific staff

Contact

Phone: +49 7531 88 - 3495

Room: S 356

Website

Office Hours

on appointment

Prof. Dr. Markus Gruber

Professor

Contact

Phone: +49 7531 88 2369

Room: D 626

Office Hours

Appointments via secretariat only.

Project Description

This research in sports informatics will be carried out together with application domain experts from sports science and physiology. A quantitative system will be developed that makes use of state-of-the-art physiological measurements in order to accurately model an individual cyclist’s physical capacities. Together with the mechanical constraints defined by a specific bicycle and a specific cycling track, the model gives rise to an optimal control problem. Its solution guides the cyclist to complete the track in minimum time. To successfully apply current computational methods, sophisticated embeddings, regularizations, or additional constraints must be developed. The challenge of our task lies in combining and adapting the model and the corresponding optimal control problem to make a numerical solution feasible. Our objective is to provide the most accurate, yet practically usable and validated pipeline consisting of physiological calibration, solution of the optimal control problem, and providing the technology for real-time feedback for the cyclist during training and competition.

Experimental Setup

Part of the project is a bicycle simulator based on a Cyclus2 ergometer and our own PC-based control software. The main features of the simulation are:

  • computer controlled pedal resistance according to the height profile of a cycling track
  • the recording and visualization of training data measurements (speed, cadence, power, heart rate etc.)
  • video display of the cycling track at the current position
  • scientifically validated for real tracks

Former Project Members

ResearchersStudents
  • Roman Byshko
  • Thorsten Dahmen
  • Maciej Gratkowski
  • Stephan Mantler
  • Martin Röder
  • Patrick Thumm
  • Julia Blumenthal
  • Fabian Brosda
  • Le Duan
  • Merian Füller
  • David Hoeckele
  • Manuel Knitza
  • Leander Schmid
  • Nitin Sharma
  • Anton Verbitzky
  • Yao Zhang

Financial Support

Subprojects

Publications

Artiga Gonzalez, A., Bertschinger, R., Brosda, F., Dahmen, T., Thumm, P., Saupe, D., Kinetic analysis of oxygen dynamics under a variable work rate, Human Movement Science (HMS), September 2017, Elsevier Science.

Wolf, S., Saupe, D., How to stay ahead of the pack: Optimal road cycling strategies for two cooperating riders, International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, 2017, IACSS Press, in press.

Wolf, S., Saupe, D., Knowing your slope on the track: Getting the most out of GPS and power data, Proceedings of Science & Cycling 2017, Düsseldorf, 2017.

Lames, M., Saupe, D., Wiemeyer, J., Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Computer Science in Sport (IACSS), Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, Vol. 663, 2017, Springer-Verlag.

Wolf, S., Dobiasch, M., Artiga Gonzalez, A., Saupe, D., How to Accurately Determine the Position on a Known Course in Road Cycling, IACSS: International Symposium on Computer Science in Sport (IACSS 2017), Springer Verlag, pp. 103--109, 2017.

Basole, R., Saupe, D. (eds.), Sports data visualization, special issue IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, October 2016.

Saupe, D., Artiga Gonzalez, A., Bertschinger, R., Dahmen, T., Gratkowski, M., Wolf, S. (eds.), Workshop Modelling in Endurance Sports, dvs-Workshop Modelling in Endurance Sports, September 2016.

Wolf, S., Bertschinger, R., Saupe, D., Road cycling climbs made speedier by personalized pacing strategies, Proceedings of the 4th International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support (icSPORTS 2016), Vol. 1, pp. 109-114, 2016, SCITEPRESS Digital Library.

Artiga Gonzalez, A., Gratkowski, M., Rastogi, Ch., Saupe, D., Hochauflösende Messung der Geschwindigkeit für Realistische Simulation des Rennradfahrens auf einem Ergometer, 11. Symposium der dvs-Sektion Sportinformatik, Sportinformatik, K. Witte, N. Bandow and J. Edelmann-Nusser (ed.) , pp. 132-137, Magdeburg, September 2016, Shaker Verlag.

Dahmen, T., Brosda, F., Robust Computation of Minimum-Time Pacing Strategies on Realistic Road Cycling Tracks, 11. Symposium der dvs-Sektion Sportinformatik, Sportinformatik, K. Witte, N. Bandow and J. Edelmann-Nusser (ed.) , pp. 96-101, Magdeburg, September 2016, Shaker Verlag.

Artiga Gonzalez, A., A Comparison of Models for Oxygen Consumption, dvs-Workshop Modelling in Endurance Sports, A. Artiga Gonzalez, pp. 34-39, University of Konstanz, September 2016, KOPS -- The Institutional Repository of the University of Konstanz (KOPS).

Bertschinger, R., Thumm, P., Gratkowski, M., Artiga Gonzalez, A., Saupe, D., Comparison between Maximal Lactate Steady-State, Critical Power and the Second Ventilatory Threshold detected by a Computer Algorithm, dvs-Workshop Modelling in Endurance Sports, pp. 54-56, University of Konstanz, September 2016, KOPS -- The Institutional Repository of the University of Konstanz (KOPS).

Dahmen, T., A 4-Parameter Critical Power Model for Optimal Pacing Strategies in Road Cycling, dvs-Workshop Modelling in Endurance Sports, pp. 7-10, University of Konstanz, September 2016, KOPS -- The Institutional Repository of the University of Konstanz (KOPS).

Wolf, S., Bertschinger, R., A practical investigation of optimal strategies on the Flüela pass, dvs-Workshop Modelling in Endurance Sports, pp. 11 -13, University of Konstanz, September 2016, KOPS -- The Institutional Repository of the University of Konstanz (KOPS).

Artiga Gonzalez, A., Bertschinger, R., Brosda, F., Dahmen, T., Thumm, P., Saupe, D., Modeling Oxygen Dynamics under Variable Work Rate, Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support (icSPORTS 2015), CITEPRESS Digital Library (ed.) , pp. 198-207, Lisbon, Portugal, November 2015. Best paper award. abstract

Quintana, J., Saupe, D., Phase registration improves classification and clustering of cycles based on self-organizing maps, 2nd International Workshop on Sensor-based Activity Recognition and Interaction (iWOAR 2015), pp. 1-6, Rostock, Germany, June 2015. Link

Dahmen, T., Saupe, D., Normalized and Xpower to Generate Pacing Strategies in Road Cycling, Vienna International Conference on Mathematical Modelling (MATHMOD), Vol. 8, pp. 780 - 781, Vienna, February 2015. 

Thumm, P., Sharma, N., Gruber, M., Saupe, D., Ein Algorithmus zur Bestimmung der zweiten ventilatorischen Schwelle verglichen mit Experten-Ratings, Deutscher Sportärzte-Kongress, Frankfurt 2015, 2015.

Quintana, J., Dahmen, T., Saupe, D., Estimation of pedal torque variation from pedal motion in cycling, International Journal of Computer Science in Sport, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 34-50, 2015, IACSS Press.

Quintana, J., Vieten, M., Saupe, D., Parametrization of cyclic motion and transversal sections, 10. Symposium on Computer Science in Sport of the German Society of Sport Science (dvs), pp. 111-117, August 2014.

Sharma, N., Thumm, P., Saupe, D., A simple algorithm for ventilatory threshold estimation, 10. Symposium on Computer Science in Sport of the German Society of Sport Science (dvs), August 2014.

Dahmen, T., Saupe, D., Optimal pacing strategy for a race of two competing cyclists, Journal of Science and Cycling, Abstract, 2nd World Congress of Cycling Science, July 2-3, 2014, Leeds, UK, accepted for publication, Vol. 3, No. 2254-7053, pp. 12, July 2014.

Saupe, D., Dahmen, T., Optimal control for cycling time trials: The Maronski effect, 21. Sportwissenschaftlicher Hochschultag der Deutschen Vereinigung für Sportwissenschaft (dvs), Konstanz, Germany, September 2013.

Quintana, J., Dahmen, T., Saupe, D., Estimation of pedal force variation from pedal motion in cycling, 9th International Symposium on Computer Science in Sport (IACSS'13), Istanbul, Turkey, June 2013.

Quintana, J., Non-linear Dynamic Invariants based on Embedding Reconstruction of Systems for Pedaling Motion, Sportinformatik 2012, pp. 20-23, September 2012.

Dahmen, T. Computing a field of optimal pacing strategies for cycling time trials (extended abstract)Sportinformatik, 9. Symposium der dvs-Sektion Sportinformatik. (2012).

Dahmen, T. and Saupe, D. and Wolf, S. Applications of mathematical models of road cyclingVienna International Conference on Mathematical Modelling (MATHMOD). 7 (2012).

Dahmen, T. Optimization of pacing strategies for cycling time trials using a smooth 6-parameter endurance modelPre-Olympic Congress on Sports Science and Computer Science in Sport (IACSS). (2012).

Quintana, J., Saupe, D., Evidence of Chaos in Indoor Pedaling Motion using Non-linear Methods, World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sport IX (WCPAS IX), Worcester, U.K., July 2012.

Dahmen, T. Designing ergometer tests for the calibration of physiological endurance models (abstract)World Congress of Performance Analysis of Sport IX. Worcester. (2012).

Dahmen, T. and Saupe, D. Calibration of a power-velocity-model for road cycling using real power and height dataInternational Journal of Computer Science in Sport (IACSS) Press, Austria. 10, 18–36. (2011).

Dahmen, T. Kalibrierung eines Leistungs-Geschwindigkeits-Modells für Rennradfahrten mit realen Leistungs-und HöhendatenSportinformatik trifft Sporttechnologie, 8. Symposium der dvs-Sektion Sportinformatik. 217, 75–80. (2011).

Byshko, R., Exploration and Visualization of Race Biking Performance, Sportinformatik trifft Sporttechnologie, 8. Symposium der dvs-Sektion Sportinformatik, Daniel Link & Josef Wiemeyer (ed.) , Vol. 217, pp. 167-171, Darmstadt, Germany, December 2011, Feldhaus Edition Czwalina.

Dahmen, T. and Byshko, R. and Saupe, D. and Röder, M. and Mantler, S. Validation of a model and a simulator for road cycling on real tracksSports Engineering. 14 (2–4), 95–110. (2011).

Wolf, S. and Dahmen, T. Optimierung der Geschwindigkeitssteuerung bei Zeitfahrten im RadsportSportinformatik trifft Sporttechnologie, 8. Symposium der dvs-Sektion Sportinformatik. 217, 235–239. (2010).

Dahmen, T., Byshko, R., Röder, M., Mantler, S., Saupe, D., Modeling, simulation and validation of cycling time trials on real tracks, International Symposium on Computer Science in Sport, Canberra, Australia, September 2009.

Dahmen, T., Byshko, R., Saupe, D., Röder, M., Mantler, S., Validation of a model and of a simulator for road cycling on real tracks, 7th International Symposium on Computer Science in Sport, Canberra, Australia, September 2009.

Dahmen, T., Simulation and optimization of race-bike training on real tracks (abstract), Gemeinsamer Workshop der Informatik-Graduiertenkollegs und Forschungskollegs 2009, Avanes, A., Fahland, D., Geibig, J., Haschemi, S., Heglmeier, S., Sadilek, D., Theisselmann, F., Wachsmuth, G., Weißleder, S. (eds.) , Dagstuhl, Germany, pp. 22-23, July 2009.

Dahmen, T., Saupe, D., A simulator for race-bike training on real tracks (abstract), 14th annual Congress of the European College of Sport Science Oslo/Norway, June 24-27, 2009. Abstract

Dahmen, T., Saupe, D., Acquisition of Performance Parameters in Race-Bike Training, Dagstuhl-Seminar, Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, 08372 - Computer Science in Sport - Mission and Methods, Vol. 8372, November 2008, Schloss Dagstuhl. Link


Theses

Garimella, R., Estimation of power and energy expenditure from sensor data in road biking, University of Konstanz, November 2016.

Dahmen, T., Modeling, Simulation, and Optimization of Pacing Strategies for Road Cycling on Realistic Tracks, Dissertation, October 2016.

Quintana, J., Non-linear Methods for the Quantification of Cyclic Motion, Dissertation, July 2016

Brosda, F., Optimale Kontrolle von Geschwindigkeitssteuerung im Radsport in verschiedenen Frameworks, Bachelor, Jul 2015

Sharma, N., A simple algorithm for ventilatory threshold estimation, Master, May 2015.

Zhang, Y., Cycling power and crank angular acceleration from video and motion capture, Master, Apr 2015.

Knitza, M., Design, Calibration, Implementation and Validation of an Individual Physiological Power Model for Bicycle Racing, Bachelor, Dec 2011

Wolf, S., Optimization of Pacing Strategies for Cycling Time Trials, Diplom (Mathematics), Nov 2010

Blumenthal, J., Acquisition, Processing, and Analysis of Pedal Motion Data in Bicycling, Master, Apr 2009. Abstract

Hoeckele, D., Trainingsanalyse von Ergometer- und Fahrradcomputerdaten, Bachelor, Jan 2009

Füller, M., Datenfusion und Synchronisation, Bachelor, Sep 2006

Supplementary data sets

Respiratory gas data

The Powerbike Project